“The most common symptoms are joint pain and stiffness and symptoms usually progress slowly over the years. The main symptom is pain and stiffness causing loss of mobility. The pain is typically made worse by prolonged activity and relieved by rest. Stiffness is most common in the morning, and typically lasts less than thirty minutes after beginning daily activities, but may return after periods of inactivity. Osteoarthritis can cause a crackling noise (called "crepitus") when the affected joint is moved, especially the shoulder and knee joints.” Read more here.
According to the CDC, osteoarthritis is the 11th cause of disability worldwide. Statistics by the CDC indicate after age 65, as many as 49% of the population will be diagnosed with arthritis with a higher incidence for women. Read more here.
Caraka Cikitsā Sthāna 28, lists osteoarthritis under Vatavyadhi which are diseases mainly caused by vata dosha. Categorized as Sandhigata vata it presents with depletion of the cartilage and synovial fluid. Vata creates an empty space, and crepitus a grating sound is heard as well as a grinding sensation is felt between the bone and cartilage. Vata also causes abnormal growth of the afflicted tissue which causes pain, swelling, and inflammation.
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Vata is the force that drives and motivates all movement in the body. It is responsible for all input and output of sensory and motor functions. Vata controls the functions of the mind, sense organs, and the higher process of thought and emotion.
The other two dosas pitta and kapha are dependent on vata for normal or abnormal movement.