In Ayurveda, medicated oils and ghritam (medicated ghee) are prepared using specific processes and principles described in detail in the classical Ayurvedic texts. These remedies are used by Ayurvedic physicians for many kinds of disorders affecting the different systems of the human body. Although most of the medicated oils are for external use, certain types of the oils and most of the medicated ghritam preparations are given orally.
Almost all of the classical texts of Ayurveda have described various methods to prepare medicated oils and ghritams, including Charaka Samhita, Sushruta Samhita, Ashtanga Hridaya and Sahastrayoga. Sharangdhar Samhita and Sahastrayoga are considered the most detailed books covering different herbal preparations and dosage recommendations.
Sneha Kalpana, also known as Sneha Pak, is the process of preparing medicinal oils using plants, herbs, minerals and animal fat. Medicated Ayurvedic oils have three components: Kalka, Sneha and Dravya. Kalka is an herbal paste and Dravya is mammal milk, buttermilk or Kanji. Unless otherwise noted in the recipe, the ratio of the three components is 1 part Kalka, 4 parts Sneha and 16 parts Dravya.
Sneh Paan: This is the internal administration of ghritams and some oils. Panchatikta Ghritam, Indukanta Ghritam, Guggulutiktaka Ghritam, Mahatiktaka Ghritam and Sukumara Ghritam. They are given for Shodhan, which is preparing the body for detoxification, as well as for nourishment. They should be taken under the strict supervision of experienced Ayurvedic doctors.
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Arishtas and Asavas are medicinal herbs processed by fermentation. In general, Arishtas are dried herbs decocted in boiling water and Asavas are fresh herbs decocted in lukewarm or cold water, both are fermented with either jaggery, sugar or honey. The fermentation generates 5 – 10% alcohol which acts as a medium extracting the deeper quality of the herbs. They are very therapeutic and have been safely utilized by Ayurveda for as many as 5000 years.
As per Wikipedia
Bhasma (residue after incineration – calcined preparation) and pishti (powdered gem or metal) are used with herbs for the treatment of critical ailments as a medicinal preparation in Ayurveda and to some extent Unani (both Indian branches of medical science using natural curative methods). The procedures for preparing these medicines are time-consuming and complicated.