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Arishtas and Asavas are medicinal herbs processed by fermentation. In general, Arishtas are dried herbs decocted in boiling water and Asavas are fresh herbs decocted in lukewarm or cold water, both are fermented with either jaggery, sugar or honey. The fermentation generates 5 – 10% alcohol which acts as a medium extracting the deeper quality of the herbs. They are very therapeutic and have been safely utilized by Ayurveda for as many as 5000 years.
As per Wikipedia
Bhasma (residue after incineration – calcined preparation) and pishti (powdered gem or metal) are used with herbs for the treatment of critical ailments as a medicinal preparation in Ayurveda and to some extent Unani (both Indian branches of medical science using natural curative methods). The procedures for preparing these medicines are time-consuming and complicated.
AYURVEDIC KWATHAM V/S KASHAYAM
Kashayam is the most widely used Ayurvedic herbal remedy and commonly prescribed by many Ayurvedic doctors. These are herbal decoctions; the herbs water-soluble active ingredients are extracted into simmering water. Water-soluble herbs are more easily absorbed by the intestines, this allows for quick action bringing about the desired effect.